Intro to Tanganyika Lake cichlid fishes

Cichlid fishes of the oldest of the great Lake Tanganyika: African rift lakes, represent a paradigm example of unprecedented diversity in morphology, behavior, and ecology that occurred over a geologically-short period of time. Lake Tanganyika cichlids display a complexity of differences in external shape and coloration, breeding systems, parental care patterns, and trophic specializations that are not found elsewhere. Lake Tanganyika also is pivotal in the geographic history of eastern Africa, and undoubtedly served at the bio-reservoir from which ancestors to species in other African rift lake were derived.

The research to be carried out by Dr. Axel Meyer will employ nucleotide sequences from two different, mitochondrially-encoded genes and from three different, nuclear-encoded genes to investigate genealogical relationships among the twelve tribes (representing 170 species in 50 general of cichlids in Lake Tanganyika. These DNA sequences will be used to generate a molecular scaffold that will provide answers to critical questions regarding the origin and diversification of the morphological, behavioral, and ecological specializations that characterize these fishes.

Answers to these questions have implications to the understanding of east African cichlids fish assemblages, and in a general sense, to understanding of adaptive radiation and biological theory.

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Simulated specialization cichlid evolution in Lake Tanganyika

The current phylogenetic hypothesis for the endemic Lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes of the tribe Eretmodini is based solely on morphology and suggests that more complex Its trophic morphologies derived only once from a less specialized ancestral condition. A molecular phylogeny of eretmodine cichlids based on partial mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b and control-region sequences was used to reconstruct the evolutionary sequence of trophic adaptations and to test alternative models of morphological divergence.

The six mitochondrial lineages found disagree with the current taxonomy and the morphology-based phylogeny. Mitochondrial lineages with similar trophic morphologies are not grouped monophyletically but are typically more closely related to lineages with different trophic phenotypes currently assigned to other genera. Our results indicate multiple independent origins of similar trophic specializations in these cichlids. A pattern of repeated divergent morphological evolution becomes apparent when the phylogeography of the mitochondrial haplotypes is analyzed in the context of the geological and paleoclimatological history of Lake Tanganyika.

In more than one instance within Lake Tanganyika, similar morphological divergence of dentitional traits occurred in sympatric species pairs. Possibly, resource-based divergent selective regimes led to resource partitioning and brought about similar trophic morphologies independently Broke and repeatedly.

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